Policy, politics and pendidikan: teacher deployment in Indonesia

Heyward, Mark and Hadiwijaya, Aos Santosa (2014) Policy, politics and pendidikan: teacher deployment in Indonesia. International Conference on Fundamentals and Implementation of Education (ICFIE) 2014. ISSN 2406-9132


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The problem of uneven teacher deployment has long been recognized in Indonesia. With an overall ratio of approximately one teacher to 16 primary school students (1:13 in juniorsecondary), there is a substantial oversupply of teachers. However, these are poorly distributed. Urban schools are commonly overstaffed while schools in rural and isolated areas are understaffed. This situation creates inefficiencies within the system and penalizes poor and marginalized communities. The end result is a disparity in education quality between schools, and an overall constraint to quality improvement. A joint Five Minister Edict was issued in 2011, requiring all districts to redistribute teachers evenly and according to need. The edict was issued by the Ministers of Education, Religious Affairs, Finance, Home Affairs and State Bureaucracy. Although this regulation required the redistribution to be implemented by end of 2013, few districts have complied. The major challenges to implementation are vested political interests and local resistance. Teachers and their spouses (many of whom are civil servants) commonly provide a political support base for local politicians and are rewarded with attractive placements. In addition, districts lack the capacity to accurately map teacher distribution or conduct analysis to identify policy solutions. As teachers are under the authority of districts, the central and provincial governments have played no significant role. The USAID-funded PRIORITAS project developed and implemented a teacher deployment program known as Penataan dan Pemerataan Guru (PPG) in 23 districts. Using the national education database (DAPODIK) and working with local partners from the districts, universities and province-level education quality assurance agencies (LPMP), the project has successfully mapped teacher distribution, developed policy solutions, conducted public consultations (multistakeholder forums) and is supporting implementation in these districts. The program is being expanded to more districts and a national policy dialogue is underway. The analysis of teacher needs is based on minimum service standards and requirements of the curriculum (2006 and 2013). Results from the initial sample of 23 districts were collated at national level and are summarized in this paper. The policy solutions vary depending on local contexts. These include teacher transfers, incentives for remote placements, school mergers, multi-grade teaching, mobile teachers, and retraining teachers to enable them to teach different subjects or levels. Such policies have the potential to greatly improve the quality of education throughout the country by ensuring that schools are properly staffed, improving equity, and improving system efficiency, releasing funds for quality improvement.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Prosiding > ICFIE 2014
Divisions: Sekolah Pascasarjana (SPS)
Depositing User: Eprints
Date Deposited: 13 Aug 2015 11:39
Last Modified: 13 Aug 2015 11:41
URI: http://eprints.uny.ac.id/id/eprint/24985

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